Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Japanese Beetle Plan for 2019

The following is revised from 2018. Not much has changed except the beetles emerged later this summer, most likely due to spring and early summer storms. Time will tell if they catch up in numbers, spread to new areas along the Front Range or hang around longer in the fall.

The Summer 4-Step Plan of Action-  

First, as difficult as it may seem - wrap your head around the fact that Japanese beetle management is ongoing from first sighting on your favorite plant (s) to sometime in the fall when their numbers wane. There is no one fix all/kill all application for adult beetles and their egg-larvae offspring (both stages can be treated). Well there is one fix all but that would require moving to Alaska or the Caribbean. 

Second, determine if and how you'll remove or manage the adult beetles all summer as they keep coming and coming and coming - just like the mail.

Third, determine if and how you'll treat your turf where they lay their eggs - you know, the next generation - 2020 beetles. 

Four, act on your plan.

The good news for determining two through four is that Dr. Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University entomologist extraordinaire has written a very informative and helpful fact sheet on the Japanese beetle. Find it HERE.

I suggest printing the document and reading it carefully. Pay attention to the Japanese beetle life cycle (one year) and understand that effective management involves dealing with both adult beetles and their offspring (larvae, also called white grubs). Adult beetles feed on foliage, flowers and fruit while their offspring - white grubs feed on grass roots. Both stages damage plants and roots.

Dr. Cranshaw includes excellent management recommendations for both life stages. Circle the ones that make the most sense to you based on your time and pocketbook. Some products are pricey if you choose to use them regularly all summer into fall.

Dr. Cranshaw has helped us tremendously with control details on the fact sheet by listing common names for products, trade names, persistence tips, whether the product is okay for use on food crops and the ever important pollinator hazard information.

Action - You may opt to do nothing - no management. You'll just complain to anyone around you who will listen, trust me from experience, eventually they will ask you to please stop complaining and suggest that move. Maybe they will pack your bags.

The most rewarding and immediate control method is to flick adults into soapy water in the morning or evening when they are sluggish and easy to flick. Keeping the numbers down actually reduces more beetles from joining the eating party on your plants. What attracts them to the plants is the plant oils released by beetle chewing (called aggregation feeding), so less beetle chewing means less beetle visits. The research on Japanese beetles says that it is fine to squish or pinch adults on the spot. Their smushed parts do not attract more beetles to the area - it's the chewed plant oils that put out the welcome sign.

I know retired people who flick beetles on their infested plants twice a day. I don't think they are available for hire. If they were, their business card might read something like this - 
 
Japanese Beetle Removal - The Number One Firm in Flicking
"We flick so you don't have to"
 
For additional information you're welcome to view my website on Japanese beetle management in Colorado. In one place you'll find many more research-based fact sheets, plant lists and more. 

Click - Japanese Beetle Management Colorado

Inexpensive bridal tulle from fabric store over basil plants growing in Smart Pot to prevent JB eating - works great!


 

Monday, July 8, 2019

July Seeding - Fall Vegetables 2019

The third or fall season of vegetable planting is here and it's mid-summer!

We generally consider early spring (March if using cold frames) to the middle of May the first planting season with cool crops. The second season with warm season crops is mid-May to early summer. The third or fall season includes both warm and cool season and starts in July or later, depending on crop maturity before the fall frost.

We typically use mid-October as the first frost or freeze date, so focus on crops that will mature in about sixty days to be on the safe side. The seed packet will list days to harvest. 

Check the chart below for plants that can be seeded now through August and into early September. The list includes several other cool season vegetables and their best window for seeding and planting, some are perennials vegetables.

Tuck in seeds wherever there is room in the landscape or vegetable area. Try the shady side of taller crops like tomatoes or corn. This location keeps the plants cooler late in the day.

Cool season vegetables and herbs that can be seeded right now in early to mid July include beets, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, cilantro, Swiss chard, collards, bunching onions, parsley, peas.

Warm season vegetables and herbs that can be seeded right now include basil, bush beans, slicing cucumber, okra, New Zealand spinach, summer squash.



DIRECT SEED COOL SEASON VEGETABLES OUTSIDE
before first fall frost
 
Use of cold frames or tunnels allow season extending
 
 

CROP –
COOL
SEASON
Days to Emerge
Days to Maturity
FALL SEED
BASED ON
MID-OCTOBER FREEZE
Arugula (herb)
Eruca sativa
7-14 days
30-45 days
Mid-Aug
Arugula – wild or heirloom
Diplotaxis tenuifolia
7-14 days
30-45 days
Mid-Aug
Asparagus
Asparagus officinalis
14-21 days soak seeds prior
Perennial
Spring Plant
Artichoke – Imperial Star
Cynara scolymus
10-15 days
85-100 days
Spring Plant
Beets
Beta vulgaris
5-21 days
60-65 or sooner for leaves
Mid-July
Broccoli
Brassica oleracea
7-14 days
45-75 variety differences
Mid-July
Broccoli Raab
Brassica rapa

4-14 days
35-45 days
End-July
Brussels Sprouts
Brassica oleracea
Gemmifera group
5-10 days
80-110 days
Early-Mid July
Cabbage
Brassica oleracea
var capitita
7-12 days
60-80 days
Mid-July
Cabbage
(Napa or Chinese)
Brassica rapa
var pekinensis
10-15 days
50-55 days
Mid-July
Cardoon
Cynara cardunculus
10-15 days
100 days
Spring Plant
Carrots
Daucus carota var sativus
10-25 days
65-75 days
Direct seed every 3 weeks until August 15
Cauliflower
Brassica oleracea
var botrytis
8-10 days
50-80 days
variety differences
Mid-July
Celeriac
Apium graveonlens
14-25 days

95 days
Spring Plant
Celery
Apium graveonlens
14-25 days
80 days
Spring Plant
Cilantro (herb)
Coriandrum sativum
10-20 days
50-55 days
Mid-July, likes cool weather
Chard-Swiss
Beta vulgaris
5-10 days
25 days – baby leaves
50 days –  bunch
Spring-Summer-Early Fall
Chicory
Cichorium intybus
14-21 days
65-70 days
Late July, prefers cool weather, moist soil
Chives Onion (herb)
Allium schoenoprasum
10-15 days
Perennial
Spring-Summer, Early Fall
Chives Garlic (herb)
Allium tuberosum
10-15 days
Perennial
Spring-Summer, Early Fall
Claytonia
Claytonia perfoliata
7-14 days
40 days
Late August. Known as winter purslane, likes cool weather and soil
Collards
Brassica oleracea


10-15 days
50-60 days
Mid-July
Cress
Lepidium sativum
5-15 days
20-30 days
Early fall

Endive
Cichorium endivia
7-10 days
60-70 days
35 days – baby leaves
Late summer, needs cool soil and temperatures
Escarole
Cichorium endivia

7-10 days
45-60 days
Late summer, needs cool soil and temperatures
Fennel (herb)
Foeniculum vulgare
14-21 days
90 days for bulbs, less for foliage
Mid-July
Garlic
Allium sativum
10 days for warm fall
9 months for fall planted

From Mid-Sept to
Mid-Oct
Greens – Baby
varies
5-10 days
25-30
Seed through early fall
Horseradish
Armoracia rusticana

Perennial
Harvest roots in late fall
Kale
Brassica oleracea


5-10 days
50-55 days
Early August
Kale Greens
Brassica oleracea

5-10 days
25-30 days or 7-14 days for micro -greens
Every two weeks until first fall frost
Kohlrabi
Brassica oleracea
(gongylodes group)

10-14 days
55 days
Mid-August



Leek
Allium ampeloprasum
(porrum group)
7-14 days
40 days for baby leeks, 84-100 for full size
Mid-August for baby leeks, okay to harvest after a couple of frosts


Lettuce Loose- Leaf
Latuca sativa
5-10 days
21-68 days
many varieties
Every three weeks until early fall, seed in afternoon shade of other plants
Lettuce Cos or Romaine
Latuca sativa
5-10 days
50-70 days
Every three weeks until early fall, seed in afternoon shade of other plants
Lettuce Crisphead or Iceberg
(tight leaves)
Latuca sativa
5-10 days
75 days
Every three weeks until early fall, seed in afternoon shade of other plants
Lettuce Butterhead or Bibb
(loose leaves)
Latuca sativa
5-10 days
65 days
Every three weeks until early fall, seed in afternoon shade of other plants
Mรขche
Valerianella locusta
10-20 days
45-60 days
Late-August, afternoon shade

Mizuna
Brassica rapa var. Japonica
4-7 days
35-45 days
21 days baby leaves
Late-August, afternoon shade

Mustard Greens
Brassica juncea
7-10 days
50 days
21 for baby leaves
Late summer
Onion Seeds
Allium cepa

7-15 days
70-150 days per onion day length
Spring Plant
Onion Bulbs or Sets
Allium cepa

7-15 days
100 days or 3-4 weeks for green onions
August to Fall
Onion Bunching (Scallion)
Allium fistulosum
10-15 days
60-65 days
Mid-July
Onion Egyptian
Allium cepa var. proliferum
10-14 days
Perennial
Spring Plant
Orach
Atriplex hortensis
7-14 days
35 days
Late August. Like a warm-season spinach, tolerates heat, nice annual ornamental too
Microgreens
INDOORS
4-7 days
10-21 days,
harvest days vary per seed types
Many seeds to choose from, seed in shallow trays all year, esp. in winter
Pak choi or
Bok choy
Brassica rapa (Chinensis group)
5-10 days
30-50 days
Late July to mid-September
Parsley (herb)
Petroselinum crispum
14-28 days
60-75 days
Mid-July, Soak seeds prior to seeding, prefers afternoon shade
Parsnips
Pastinaca sativa
10-25 days
85-120 days
Harvest in fall after frosts for sweet flavor
Peas – shell,
snap, snow
Pisum sativum
5-10 days
50-65 days
Mid-July, soak seeds prior to sowing
Potato Tubers
Solanum tuberosum
10-15 days
90-120  




Spring Plant
Radicchio
Cichorium intybus

7-10 days
60-90 days
Late summer, needs cool soil and temperatures
Radish
Raphanus sativus
5-10 days
20-30 days
Late summer until first fall frost
Radish - Daikon
Raphanus sativus
5-10 days
60 days
Harvest any size in late fall before ground freezes
Rhubarb Crowns
Rheum rhabarbarum

Perennial
Spring Plant. Grow one full year before harvest
Rhubarb Seeds
Rheum rhabarbarum
7-14 days
Perennial
Spring Plant
Soak seeds before planting. Grow one full year before harvest
Rutabaga
Brassica napus
4-7 days
90-100 days
Spring Plant
Shallots
Allium cepa var. aggregatum
10-15 days
100 days
Zone 5 or warmer fall or spring plant, Zone 4 or colder spring plant
Spinach - Common
Spinacia oleracea
6-10 days
30-45 days
Use bolt resistant varieties during heat of summer, cold hardy types can overwinter
Tatsoi
Brassica rapa var. narinosa
5-10 days
21 days baby leaves, 45 full leaves
Sow up to three weeks before first fall frost
Turnip
Brassica rapa
5-10 days
40-75 days
Sow late summer before first fall frost

 
















































































































































































































































Many thanks to the following companies for reference - Botanical Interests Inc., Johnny’s Selected Seeds, Renee’s Garden, John Scheepers Seeds, Park Seed, Pinetree Garden Seeds, Colorado State University, Cornell University