Sunday, October 15, 2017

Berries and Busyness

It's been a busy weekend cleaning out spent foliage in the outdoor containers and the vegetable garden. Plus getting the raised beds ready for garlic planting this week - they're dry enough now after the snow storm last weekend. Ornamental bulbs need to be planted too. Needless to say, I'm a little behind in my blog writing, hope to catch up soon. These hawthorn tree berries remind of Bronco orange, let's hope for another winning season!

Friday, October 6, 2017

Cover your Sprinkler Pipes

Colorado October weather can be anywhere from divine warm sixty degree days to disastrous, sudden cold - often with snow that can snap branches on leafed out trees in mere hours. Guess what is predicted in about seventy-two hours? Are you ready?

I am prepared, mostly - the landscape trees and new plantings are well hydrated from recent rain storms, plus some supplemental deep root watering earlier in August. It's never a good thing for plants to go in to the fall and winter with dry roots. Dry means damage to the fine root hairs, so try to remember "winter - wet" (not sopping, but moist). Here's more information on fall and winter tree watering from CSU Extension.

One easy to delay fall chore is scheduling the automatic sprinkler blow out. I'm guilty! In the meantime I have securely wrapped and covered the exposed back flow preventer and the attached pipes so they don't freeze. It's about a five minute job, so don't delay.  For extra insurance turn off the water to your sprinkler system. The shut off valve is usually inside the house (should be two shut offs, one for the sprinkler, one to the whole house). Drain excess water in the exposed pipes as well by opening the ball valves attached to the back flow preventer. Check out this video from the Broomfield Parks Department for a good resource to winterize your pipes.

Also, please watch my short video on wrapping the sprinkler pipes. Ferris wanted to be part of the action.


Sunday, September 24, 2017

Tomato Harvest 2017

Whiteflies on a yellow squash leaf that moved to the tomato plants
The 2017 tomato season was a good one. It's about time. In the past few years, our plants were hit with either early blight, tomato spotted wilt virus, spider mites or psyllids. One year I think we had all four ailments!

This summer started out being a challenge with extreme heat in July and August which caused some blossom drop. The plants caught up and started fruiting well in mid-August. One plant was pulled a few weeks ago due to a heavy infestation of whiteflies, that also plagued the nearby yellow squash plant. The four remaining tomato plants ended up being good producers and very tasty.

'Sweet Chelsea' and 'Marmande'
'Green Zebra' - will spread out the tomatoes so they ripen better


Here's a video I did before the weather cool down.


Saturday, September 23, 2017

Glorious Garlic

The temperature reading this morning in Denver at 7:00 am was 46 degrees, right now (as of this writing) it's in the mid-50s, I say summer is over. So does the September calendar. NOT that you still can't harvest warm season vegetables (if covering at night) and watch the geraniums hang on with a few blooms. No doubt we'll have many warm days in the next few weeks, but probably not consistent nighttime temperatures above fifty-five, which is what warm season plants need.  

There's still time - go buy some garlic planting stock from local garden retailers and get it in the ground now...or very soon!

Because I've written several garlic blogs, for the sake of not repeating or feeling the easy urge to cut and paste, below is a link to an earlier garlic writing. Not much has changed except that more local garden retailers are carrying quality planting stock and they are on their shelves. Planting stock sells out quickly so call around to check availability. If the good stuff is gone, check with mail order companies by doing a quick search. They often sell out as well, many have been taking fall shipping orders since early summer.  

If you're resourceful and have healthy left over homegrown garlic that was harvested earlier this summer, then you know that it also doubles as planting stock. Choose from the largest bulbs and use the largest cloves to plant for large bulbs next summer.

Here's the planting link - Plant Garlic Now


"There is no such thing as a little garlic"    

Wednesday, September 20, 2017

Painted Ladies a Plenty

Painted Lady on Oregano Bloom
It's hard to miss the plethora of painted lady butterflies congregating on our late blooming garden plants. They seem to be everywhere - call it a convention, a meeting of the minds or what it really is, their migration. They're headed south to warmer parts of the southwest and Mexico for the winter. Their numbers vary year to year, but this year they are numerous probably due to good spring rains in the southwest that helped grow their numbers. Each spring they migrate north to Colorado and other states for the summer to hang out, lay eggs, and feed on many blooming plants. Host plants include thistle, mallow and hollyhock. Nectar plants in the aster family and many other wildflowers are their favorites.

If you're missing out on the butterfly show in your backyard this fall, think about putting in both host (where they lay their eggs) and nectar plants. Here's a great plant list from Dr. Whitney Cranshaw at Colorado State University - Gardening for Insects

More information on Painted Ladies (and gents) - Painted Lady

Painted Ladies on the Agastache 'Heatwave.' 


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Tuesday, September 19, 2017

Canada Getaway Part 1

Leaving town for a few days during the prime time harvest period isn't easy for any gardener, so try leaving for six days. Not sure what piled up more - the tomatoes or the summer squash! It was worth foregoing Harvest Joy for the getaway to lovely Canada. Here's why, and some highlights of the trip...

Travel is a brief change from normal routines and that usually brings a renewed perspective. Fill in the blank on your perspective, for me it was realizing that I need more time away from home to get out of the same ol' same ol' routine. I think I was living the GroundHog Day movie (you'll get the idea by watching the clip or the full movie).

The best part about leaving is completing all the little "must do" preparation chores before locking the door. My garden was in better shape before I left then how it will probably look at the end of October. The bindweed growing on the boulevard adjacent to the neighbor's bindweed garden was pulled and dully scolded not to return. I harvested the potatoes, processed basil for winter use and picked many tomatoes, peppers and summer squash for sharing and freezing. I knew the trip was planned last winter so I planted fewer vegetables this year - no eggplants, tomatillos, green beans or pumpkins. I miss them, but the local farmer's markets and grocery stores have plenty.
Harbor View of Victoria B.C.
 

Our first stop was Seattle so we could catch the early ferry to Victoria B.C. the next day. Yes, you guessed it, destination The Butchardt Gardens - on my bucket list for years having missed the opportunity to see it with my parents and family several years ago. One night in Seattle doesn't allow a lot of time to explore and since I'd been there before, didn't need to shop Pike Place Market or zoom up to the top of the Space Needle, although they are must dos when visiting. We power walked around downtown before enjoying a delicious salmon dinner overlooking the ocean - getting us in the mood for more ocean and views to follow.

Colorful Entry to the Empress Hotel in Victoria B.C.
In less than twenty-four hours after take off, it kicked in that I had no need to worry about the garden or what to fix for dinner - the "let go and embrace the now" perspective was happening. 

In the next five days we split our days between Victoria B.C. and Vancouver B.C. Both are different, yet similar cities. Victoria has a slower pace of life, less people and more quaint. We learned from some of the locals that their economy and housing market is booming so trying to find a place to buy or rent is difficult, same for Vancouver (only more expensive). 

Everywhere we walked in Victoria (near downtown) had a spectacular view of the harbor and all the new buildings going up (not so pretty in my book). The well placed hanging flower baskets were still at peak bloom while soaking up every bit of the early fall, warm sun. We totally lucked out on weather - every day was in the 60s-70s, no rain in both cities. 

Sunken Garden at Butchardt
The highlight of Victoria was Butchardt Gardens, pronounced like "butcher" (as in the person who sells meat), plus "ard." Many people say Boo Chard, which is just fine. In a nutshell, Butchardt is a private garden maintained by the family who started it back in the early 1900s. 

Jennie was the wife of Robert Pim Butchardt who came to the area to build a cement plant. Build he did, while Jennie planned how to use the deep, spent limestone pits surrounding their house for a garden. Let's just say she brought in a lot of soil to fill up the holes - not all the way to the top, which gives the fifty-five acre garden it's signature spectacular overlooking views of the sunken garden.

One Stretch of the Rose Garden
What makes this garden, which includes the distinct Rose, Japanese, Italian and Mediterranean garden plus water features, statues, ponds and a tasteful visitor center, are the blooming annuals that weave and blend it all together. You'd never know that seventy-five percent (over 900 varieties) of the gardens are annual plantings because they are so artfully positioned among and around the trees, shrubs and evergreen plantings. Many of these plants we know and use in our own gardens. They provide a handy guide of the plants growing there so plant description tags don't interfere with viewing enjoyment, a very nice touch.

Large plantings of common floss flower (Ageratum) pop in pleasing pinks and purples, near bright swaths of yellow and orange lantana. Gloriosa daisies were lit up in blooming prowess while roses put on their final fall display of scented single, double and very double blooms. From the fragrant heliotrope to the common, but colorful impatiens, it all works in melodic plant fashion at Butchardt Gardens.

To choose my favorite part of the garden would be difficult. In late summer to fall frost, the dahlias are in peak bloom. A spring visit would be just as impressive with crocus, daffodils and species tulips.

Take some time to click on the links to read more about The Butchard Gardens and view the videos below. Today, the garden is owned and operated by Robin-Lee Clarke, great granddaughter of Jennie Butchardt, what an impressive garden legacy to be part of. 

In Part II I'll write about our visit to Vancouver B.C.

Butchardt Italian Garden


Purple Heliotrope and White Dahlias


View of the Dining Room Restaurant, the family's original home
Internet videos of Butchardt Gardens:

Butchardt Gardens from Garden Time TV

A Year at the Gardens




Saturday, September 9, 2017

Fall Japanese Beetle 2017 Update - Are They Gone Yet?

September for gardeners can be bitter sweet knowing fall frosts and winter snows are weeks away instead of months. Others are joyful that the monotony of weekly lawn mowing or the constant hand flicking to a drowning end for Japanese beetles is over. I'm somewhere in between both emotions.

I am more than over the unwelcome visit by the hundreds of Japanese beetles that arrived in June and stayed for three months of breakfasts, lunches, dinners and Sunday brunches. They didn't send a thank you for the meals or bother to apologize for their destructive mess. Their numbers seem to be dwindling - many can be found dead on sidewalks or alleys. Bye bye beetles, please don't come back anytime soon, but that is false hope, they know it, we know it.

Their young are now hatched and dining on grass roots as we head in to pumpkin season. Is there anything that can still be done this month or this fall to kill the next generation of beetles? Yes, but you need to act right now.

First, the horticulture and entomology experts recommend treating the lawn for eggs and grubs from June through early August, almost as soon as adult beetles arrive to your garden. The reason - chemical granules generally have a four month control period, so grubs will be killed from egg laying to grub stage during the period adults are flying.

Internet Photo from Bayer Advanced
The list of summer grub control products to use can be found on the highlighted link below. 


However, if you missed that window you can act right now, there are two organic lawn grub controls that can be applied while soils are still warm this fall. These include Milky Spore and Beneficial Nematodes. Milky Spore takes a few years to establish and become effective. It is available in a powder formulation or granular (granules are much easier to use). Beneficial nematodes generally offer up to two years of control.  Read all application labels for storing, mixing and applying for both products.

Credible edu websites comment that these organic controls may not result in as much grub kill that chemical products offer. Still, give them a try or read more on your own. Call around to area garden centers to see if they carry either product (you can use both products in the same season if you choose) or try mail order. 

Chemical GRUB Controls - applied from June to mid-August

Milky Spore - apply now - a powder that needs to be applied where grubs are active (if you have dead patches in the fall and lots of previous adult beetles, this is a good indicator). It causes a bacterial disease in the grubs, reducing their chances to survive the winter.

Beneficial Nematodes - apply now known as predator nematodes that target lawn grubs, they are shipped to your house and must stored properly and applied according to package instructions. Click here for names of beneficial nematode products to try (page 8).  

FAQ on beneficial nematodes  

Mail Order Information on beneficial nematodes (again, call local garden centers to see if they carry).

Now that the metallic orange adult beetles have died off, try to enjoy the rest of the fall season. It goes without saying that our current weather conditions are very challenging to many people in the country. Fires out west are causing so much damage, smoke and concern. My heart is crying for my home state - Montana, where more than a million acres are burning. Texas, Florida have too much rain and the hurricane destruction is beyond imaginable. 


Internet Photo from Montana Public Radio

Monday, August 28, 2017

Harvest Joy

Late August in to September is the ultimate time to harvest or seek out fruits and vegetables are that ready, ripe, and delicious. Let's just call it what it is - harvest joy. Followed by eating joy. 

If you're not a home vegetable or fruit grower, look no further than your neighborhood farmer's markets, roadside stands or hurry up and subscribe to a community supported agriculture (CSA) program. Grocery stores are loaded with regional and locally grown produce. Warning - shopping the fresh produce aisle while you're hungry may be hazardous to your shirt when biting in to a Palisade peach!

How's your harvest coming along? Are you staying on top of the number of squash, peppers and tomatoes that are screaming at you to be plucked, eaten or shared? For helpful harvest and storage tips check out the handy chart below. 


Saturday, August 19, 2017

Did the Vikings Grow Tómatar?

Now that I have your attention, let me elaborate. Did Vikings grow tomatoes (which in the Icelandic language are called tómatar).The short answer is probably not. Iceland, known as the Land of Ice and Fire has a climate ranging from temperate to subarctic. Their July summer temperatures in the warmer southern part of the island averages between 50 and 55 degrees Fahrenheit. On really warm days it can get to up to 78 degrees. Winters are fairly mild - in the southern lowlands they average around 32 degrees.

Even without studying past Viking culture and diet, we assume correctly they fished. A lot. They also farmed grains for bread and used cattle for dairy products and sheep for wool. Vikings grew many types of vegetables, including onions, leeks, peas, beans, cabbage and turnips. They gathered wild greens, nettles, cress, lambs quarters and berries. Toss in some whaling and at the end of long week or celebration feast they enjoyed their spiced mead, otherwise known as honey-wine!

Photo from Iheartreykjanik.net
But tomatoes they did not grow. Icelanders grow them today in greenhouses heated by geothermal power - it's a year round industry. I read about a restaurant located right in a greenhouse that serves very tasty tomato soup, tomato schnapps and unforgettable tomato ice cream. I'll be dreaming about tomato popsicles tonight.

Why does this it matter whether the Vikings grew tomatoes or not. Well, it doesn't really, I just like the Icelandic name for tomatoes - tómatar pronounced phonetically - TOE-ma-tar. Plus it is on my bucket list to travel there one day and hopefully take a tour of their incredible greenhouses and yes, have some "mouthwatering cheesecake with jam of green-tomato, cinnamon and lime" at Fridheimar Restaurant.   

If you've read this far, then you probably grow and like tomatoes too, so keep a look out for tomato events in late summer into September. One such event is not to be missed - the 2017 Taste of Tomato in Boulder on September 9 from 10:00 am to 1:00 pm at the Gateway Park Fun Center, located at 4800 North 28th Street. Presented by Harlequin's Gardens and the Boulder County Extension office, it's loads of fun to enter your own tomatoes or learn more about successfully growing them and saving seeds for next year's delicious crop. Read all the details at this link - 2017 Taste of Tomato.

Gotta run, I have some tomatoes to harvest and time to make a tomato pie. 


 

Thursday, August 10, 2017

Smart Pots Grow Smart Plants

I'm in my sixth season of using Smart Pots to grow vegetables. Just like last summer I'm using them to grow tomatoes, basil and potatoes. The only difference this year is that the plants are growing better, in a way, smarter - they are very healthy, disease free and producing. I credit two reasons for this - using Smart Pot containers and the consistent, sunny and mostly hail-free weather conditions.

Hard to see but six Smart Pots growing potatoes
If you are unfamiliar with Smart Pots then you're missing out on one of the easiest, plant and root growing friendly containers on the market. These felt-like, reusable, lightweight containers ensure garden growing success for anyone. Smart pots have been described as the cotton shirt of the container world. Why? Plants growing in porous Smart Pots don't get as hot - they breathe, allowing air to flow through the container and around the plant. The plant feels comfortable, just like we feel when wearing a cotton shirt. 


Roots in Smart Pots subsequently grow larger and don't end up up growing in circles like they do in other hard material containers. Once a root in a Smart Pot reaches the side of the fabric, the root forms new roots that will grow up, down or side-to-side in a process known as air root pruning. No root girdling, just lots more healthy, happy, fibrous root growth!
  
'New Big Dwarf' Organic Tomato
They are very affordably priced and come in several sizes and three colors. I'm using black #15s for potatoes, #20s for tomatoes and big bag bed mini for basil.

Try new plant varieties or tuck Smart Pots anywhere in the landscape where there's good sun and easy access to water. Gardeners appreciate that they can be used during the growing season and easily emptied, folded and stored over the winter. Try the wall flower saddle planter over railings, gates or fences. The sidewall opening on the transplanters come in very handy for potting up plants as they grow larger.

Fill them with quality sterile potting soil at the beginning of each gardening season and plant or seed just as you would in any other container. Over watering is practically impossible with the porous nature of the container. Smart Pots will provide many seasons of use before needing to be replaced.

Use a tray or tarp underneath so soil won't seep out onto concrete or wood surfaces. If used on bare ground, no need to use anything under the Smart Pot. They are growing on the small rock mulch near my raised beds. I water daily on hot days and fertilize plants twice a month.

Lettuce Leaf Basil in Mini Raised Bed - Veil for Insect Protection
My new technique to grow basil is to heavily over seed a mini raised bed, then harvest as micro basil greens or allow them to grow to two sets of leaves. In a few short weeks there are plenty of greens to use fresh in salads or pesto with plenty left over to process in oil for freezing.

There's still time to seed more basil, and while you're at it, get going on the third or fall season of gardening with your favorite leafy greens.



Thursday, August 3, 2017

City Living Among the Foxes and Rabbits

People living in rural areas are used to seeing wildlife or having encounters, hopefully from a distance. I admit we have a can of bear spray in our cupboard - purchased a few years ago before hiking around Jackson, WY. I hope to never use it living here in central Denver, despite it being recommended recently by a state wildlife professional to deter raccoons from feeding on apples or peaches. She said one hit of the spray and they won't return. Our apple tree died years ago and we no longer have peach trees, but we do have rabbits and squirrels all around us and now, a very sick fox.

The rabbits are easy to keep out of the backyard, a four foot small mesh wire fence attached to the wrought iron has kept them away from the lettuce and the lawn. I still see four or five of them in our neighborhood quietly resting on front lawns taking a nibble here and there in between their daytime naps. Some look a bit thin and possibly mangy, but not nearly as sick as the fox we encountered a couple of days ago. 

Ferris, our dog alerted us to the fox in the corner of our front yard upon returning from an early morning walk. It was immediately evident that the poor critter was very unwell and not interested in moving away quickly. It was lying on mulch near the neighbor's north fence behind some of our bushes. We quickly got Ferris in the house and blocked him from going out on that side of the house.

The photo is disturbing to say the least. The face is clearly plagued with mange or some kind of infection. When it walked around the fence to the neighbor's yard to hide under his low deck, it was clear the tail and legs were also diseased. Honestly, I thought the animal was some kind of escaped small goat, which are legal to have in Denver - it looked nowhere near what a fox is supposed to look like.  

After calls to the Colorado Parks and Wildlife and the Denver Animal Shelter, the neighbor and I got a visit by a helpful, friendly Animal Protection Investigator from the Denver Animal Shelter. Ordinarily they do not get involved with nuisance wildlife, but since this fox was sick or possibly injured, they took action. The investigator did his best to try to view the fox under the deck, but the area was too dark and wide to see very far. Based on the many sightings of this sick animal on the local Nextdoor website, he said he'd set up a trap. The trap caught a squirrel the first night, nothing last night. 

There's not much more that can be said about wildlife moving in or coexisting in and near cities and people. They were here first. I don't blame them for hanging out where food is pretty accessible. The city born and raised Canadian geese in Denver parks are a draw for foxes and coyotes. Another neighbor recently told me that someone on her block regularly puts out dog food for foxes, not a good idea, obviously, plus it is against the law in Denver. 

We know the dangers of being near or touching sick wildlife and our first priority is for our safety and health of our children and pets. My hunch is the poor fox has moved on to the weedy space near the highway south of us to quietly die. Rest in peace.

8-8-2017 Update  I was told that the fox was found earlier today a half a block from our house and quietly euthanized by the City of Denver Animal Shelter. I don't know the details other than it was a very, very sick fox and was easily caught and died peacefully.   

Saturday, July 22, 2017

Fall Planting in July and August

When it's one hundred degrees outside gardeners are up with the roosters getting their watering and harvesting chores finished before the heat of the day. Sometimes I venture out mid-day to marvel at the busy pollinators. No doubt if we could translate their buzzing vibrations they'd tell us to "jjjjjuuusssstttttzzzzzssssttttaaayyyy indoors!" Got it, might as well go shopping for more seeds to plant.

The third season of vegetable planting is here. If you're new to Colorado, we generally consider early spring to the middle of May the first planting season - cool crops, followed by warm season crops from mid-May to early summer. The third or fall season includes both warm and cool season and starts in July or later, depending on crop maturity before first frost.

I typically use mid-October as the first frost or freeze date, so focus on crops that will mature in about sixty days to be on the safe side. The seed packet will list days to harvest. 

Check the chart below for plants that can be seeded now through August and into early September.

Tuck in seeds wherever there is room, even the landscape if you've got some open real estate. Try the shady side of taller crops like tomatoes or corn. If the area was growing crops prior, mix some all purpose fertilizer in the soil before seeding.

When it cools down some (nights in the 50s, days in the 80s) direct seed lettuce, spinach, arugula and radishes - the quicker maturing cool season crops.

Cool season vegetables and herbs that can be seeded right now include beets, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, cilantro, Swiss chard, collards, bunching onions, parsley, peas.

Warm season vegetables and herbs that can be seeded right now include basil, bush beans, slicing cucumber, okra, New Zealand spinach, summer squash.



Fall Season Vegetable Planting Calendar 
for the Colorado Front Range
Use of cold frames or tunnels help extend the season


CROP –
COOL
SEASON
DAYS
TO
EMERGE
DAYS
TO
MATURITY
FALL SEED
BASED ON
MID OCTOBER FREEZE
NOTES
Arugula (herb)
Eruca sativa
7-14 days
30-45 days
Mid-Aug
Arugula – wild or heirloom
Diplotaxis tenuifolia
7-14 days
30-45 days
Mid-Aug
Asparagus
Asparagus officinalis
14-21 days soak seeds prior
Perennial
Spring Plant
Artichoke – Imperial Star
Cynara scolymus
10-15 days
85-100 days
Spring Plant
Beets
Beta vulgaris
5-21 days
60-65 or sooner for leaves
Mid-July
Broccoli
Brassica oleracea
7-14 days
45-75 variety differences
July fall direct seeding is recommended
Broccoli Raab
Brassica rapa

4-14 days
35-45 days
End-July
Brussels Sprouts
Brassica oleracea
Gemmifera group
5-10 days
80-110 days
Early-July
Cabbage
Brassica oleracea
var capitita
7-12 days
60-80 days
Mid-July
Cabbage
(Napa or Chinese)
Brassica rapa
var pekinensis
10-15 days
50-55 days
Mid-July
Cardoon
Cynara cardunculus
10-15 days
100 days
Spring Plant
Carrots
Daucus carota var sativus
10-25 days
65-75 days
Direct seed every 3 weeks until August 15
Cauliflower
Brassica oleracea
var botrytis
8-10 days
50-80 days
variety differences
Mid-July
Celeriac
Apium graveonlens
14-25 days

95 days
Spring Plant
Celery
Apium graveonlens
14-25 days
80 days
Spring Plant
Cilantro (herb)
Coriandrum sativum
10-20 days
50-55 days
Mid-July, likes cool weather
Chard-Swiss
Beta vulgaris
5-10 days
25 days – baby leaves
50 days –  bunch
Spring-Summer-Early Fall
Chicory
Cichorium intybus
14-21 days
65-70 days
Late July, prefers cool weather, moist soil
Chives Onion (herb)
Allium schoenoprasum
10-15 days
Perennial
Spring-Summer, Early Fall
Chives Garlic (herb)
Allium tuberosum
10-15 days
Perennial
Spring-Summer, Early Fall
Claytonia
Claytonia perfoliata
7-14 days
40 days
Late August. Known as winter purslane, likes cool weather and soil
Collards
Brassica oleracea


10-15 days
50-60 days
Mid-July
Cress
Lepidium sativum
5-15 days
20-30 days
Early fall

Endive
Cichorium endivia
7-10 days
60-70 days
35 days – baby leaves
Late summer, needs cool soil and temperatures
Escarole
Cichorium endivia

7-10 days
45-60 days
Late summer, needs cool soil and temperatures
Fennel (herb)
Foeniculum vulgare
14-21 days
90 days for bulbs, less for foliage
Mid-July
Garlic (herb)
Allium sativum
10 days for warm fall
9 months for fall planted

From Mid-Sept to
Mid-Oct
Greens – Baby
varies
5-10 days
25-30
Seed through early fall
Horseradish
Armoracia rusticana

Perennial
Harvest roots in late fall
Kale
Brassica oleracea


5-10 days
50-55 days
Early August
Kale Greens
Brassica oleracea

5-10 days
25-30 days or 7-14 days for micro -greens
Every two weeks until first fall frost
Kohlrabi
Brassica oleracea
(gongylodes group)

10-14 days
55 days
Early August
CROP –
COOL
SEASON
DAYS
TO
EMERGE
DAYS
TO
MATURITY
FALL SEED
BASED ON
MID OCTOBER FREEZE
NOTES
Leek
Allium ampeloprasum
(porrum group)
7-14 days
40 days for baby leeks, 84-100 for full size
Mid-August for baby leeks, okay to harvest after a couple of frosts


Lettuce Loose- Leaf
Latuca sativa
5-10 days
21-68 days
many varieties
Every three weeks until early fall, seed in afternoon shade of other plants
Lettuce Cos or Romaine
Latuca sativa
5-10 days
50-70 days
Every three weeks until early fall, seed in afternoon shade of other plants
Lettuce Crisphead or Iceberg
(tight leaves)
Latuca sativa
5-10 days
75 days
Every three weeks until early fall, seed in afternoon shade of other plants
Lettuce Butterhead or Bibb
(loose leaves)
Latuca sativa
5-10 days
65 days
Every three weeks until early fall, seed in afternoon shade of other plants
Mâche
Valerianella locusta
10-20 days
45-60 days
Late-August, afternoon shade

Mizuna
Brassica rapa var. Japonica
4-7 days
35-45 days
21 days baby leaves
Late-August, afternoon shade

Mustard Greens
Brassica juncea
7-10 days
50 days
21 for baby leaves
July-early September
Onion Seeds
Allium cepa

7-15 days
70-150 days per onion day length
Spring Plant
Onion Bulbs or Sets
Allium cepa

7-15 days
100 days or 3-4 weeks for green onions
August to Fall
Onion Bunching (Scallion)
Allium fistulosum
10-15 days
60-65 days
Mid-July
Onion Egyptian
Allium cepa var. proliferum
10-14 days
Perennial
Spring Plant
Orach
Atriplex hortensis
7-14 days
35 days
Late August. Like a warm-season spinach, tolerates heat, nice annual ornamental too
Microgreens
INDOORS
4-7 days
10-21 days,
harvest days vary per seed types
Many seeds to choose from, seed in shallow trays all year, esp. in winter
Pak choi or
Bok choy
Brassica rapa (Chinensis group)
5-10 days
30-50 days
Late July to mid-September
Parsley (herb)
Petroselinum crispum
14-28 days
60-75 days
Mid-July, Soak seeds prior to seeding, prefers afternoon shade
Parsnips
Pastinaca sativa
10-25 days
85-120 days
Harvest in fall after frosts for sweet flavor
Peas – shell,
snap, snow
Pisum sativum
5-10 days
50-65 days
Mid-July, soak seeds prior to sowing
Potato Tubers
Solanum tuberosum
10-15 days
90-120  


Spring Plant
Radicchio
Cichorium intybus

7-10 days
60-90 days
Late summer, needs cool soil and temperatures
Radish
Raphanus sativus
5-10 days
20-30 days
Late summer until first fall frost
Radish - Daikon
Raphanus sativus
5-10 days
60 days
Harvest any size in late fall before ground freezes
Rhubarb Crowns
Rheum rhabarbarum

Perennial
Spring Plant. Grow one full year before harvest
Rhubarb Seeds
Rheum rhabarbarum
7-14 days
Perennial
Spring Plant
Soak seeds before planting. Grow one full year before harvest
Rutabaga
Brassica napus
4-7 days
90-100 days
Spring Plant
Shallots
Allium cepa var. aggregatum
10-15 days
100 days
Zone 5 or warmer fall or spring plant, Zone 4 or colder spring plant
Spinach - Common
Spinacia oleracea
6-10 days
30-45 days
Use bolt resistant varieties during heat of summer, cold hardy types can overwinter
Tatsoi
Brassica rapa var. narinosa
5-10 days
21 days baby leaves, 45 full leaves
Sow up to three weeks before first fall frost
Turnip
Brassica rapa
5-10 days
40-75 days
Sow late summer before first fall frost

 































CROP –
WARM
SEASON
DAYS
TO
EMERGE
*indoor seeded for spring planting
DAYS
TO
MATURITY
FALL SEED
BASED ON
MID OCTOBER FREEZE
NOTES
Basil  (herb)
Ocimum basilicum
5-10 days
60-85 days
Annual
Mid-July, basil is very frost sensitive
Bean Bush—Filet, Snap, Haricot, String, Shelling, Wax, Dry,
Phaseolus vulgaris
8-10 days
55-65 days
70-75 shell
80-100 dry
Mid - Late July for early maturing
Bean Pole—
Wax, Snap,
Phaseolus vulgaris
6-12 days
60-65 days
Mid-Late July
Bean Lima
Phaseolus lunatus
6-12 days
65-85 days
July for early maturing
Bean—Winged Bean
Phaseolus tetragonolobus
6-12 days
65-85 days
July for early maturing
Bean—Scarlet Runner
Phaseolus coccineus
6-12 days
65-85 days
July for early maturing
Bean
 Yard Long
Vigna unguiculata
10-15 days
65-85 days
July for early maturing
Bean Cowpeas
Vigna unguiculata
10-12 days
75 days
July


Corn, Sweet
Zea mays hybrids
5-10 days
68-80 days
Spring Plant
Corn
Ornamental
Zea mays

5-10 days
85-120
Spring Plant
Can be left out after several frosts, harvest when kernels are hard and glossy
Cucumber
Slicing, pickling, specialty
Cucumis sativus
5-10 days
48-65 days, depends on variety
Mid-July for short maturing
Edamame
Glycine max
10-12 days
80-95 days
Spring Plant
*Eggplant
Solanum melongena
10-21 days
60-80 days
Spring Plant
Ground Cherry
Physalis pruinosa

14 days
75 days
Spring Plant
Melon-
Cantaloupe, Canary, Muskmelon,
Honeydew
Cucumis melo
5-10 days
60-85 days
Spring Plant
 Melon ‘Cucamelon’
Melothria scabra

7-21 days
65-80 days
July for early maturing
Okra
Abelmoschus esculentus
10-15 days
55-65 days
Mid-July, soak seeds for a day prior to sowing, harvest when small - 3-4”

*Pepper–Bell,
Sweet, Serrano, Cayenne, Jalapenos, Paprika, Ornamental
Capsicum annuum
10-21 days
70-90 days
Spring Plant
*Pepper - Habanero, Bhut Jolokia
Capsicum chinense
10-21 days
90-110 days
Spring Plant
*Pepper –
 Tobasco
Capsicum frutenscens
10-21 days
80 days
Spring Plant
Pumpkin
Cucurbita maxima
5-14 days
95-120
Spring Plant
Pumpkin
Cucurbita pepo
5-10 days
95
Spring Plant
Spinach - Malabar
Basella alba
14-21 days
85 days
Late Spring Plant
Spinach – New Zealand
Tetragonia expansa
10-20 days
50-60 days
Mid-July also known as perpetual spinach
Squash
Summer—Yellow, Zucchini, Patty Pan, Round, Scallop, Calabacita
    Cucurbita pepo      
5-10 days
45-65 many varieties
Mid-July, harvest  when small!
Enjoy the
edible flowers
Squash
Winter –Butternut, Buttercup,
Kabocha, Hubbard,
Lakota 
Curcurbita maxima

5-10 days
85-110 days
Spring Plant
Harvest before first fall frost, edible flowers
Squash
Winter–
Acorn, Delicata,  Spaghetti 
Cucurbita pepo      
5-10 days
85-110 days
Spring Plant Harvest before first fall frost
Squash
Winter – Butternut
Cucurbita moshata      
5-10 days
85-110 days
Spring Plant
Harvest before first fall frost
*Tomato
Lycopersicon esculentum
5-10 days
60-110 depending on variety
Spring Plant
*Tomatillo
Physalis philadelphica or ixocarpa
10-12 days
75-100
Spring Plant

Watermelon
Citrullus lanatus
3-5 days
70-100
depending on variety
            Spring Plant